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Welding Terms and Definitions Dictionary

Alternating Current (AC)
 -  An electric current which periodically reverses direction. It is the form in which electric power is delivered to businesses and residences.
Direct Current (DC)
 -  Flows in one direction and does not reverse its direction of flow as does alternating current.

A term used to describe a compound material composed of two or more metals or of a metal and a nonmetal.

Across the arc wire feeders
 -  Also referred to as voltage-sensing wire feeders. The wire feeder is powered by the welding cable instead of a control cable. This configuration provides the benefit of fewer cables running back to the power source. Voltage control at the point of use is not possible without the addition of a control cable however, technologies such as ArcReach and CrossLinc now provided remote control capability via the welding cable.
Actual throat
 -  The shortest distance from the root of a fillet weld to its face.
All-weld-metal test specimen
 -  A test specimen with the reduced section composed wholly of weld metal
 -  A mixture of metallic elements combined to provide specific properties such as greater resistance to corrosion or improved strength. For example, brass is an alloy of copper and zinc; steel is an alloy of iron and carbon.
 -  The physical gap between the end of the electrode and the base metal. The physical gap causes heat due to resistance of current flow and arc rays.
Arc Welding
 -  Welding processes which use heat from the resistance of current flow and arc rays to produce coalescence of metals. Can use either direct (DC) or alternating (AC) current, consumable or non-consumable electrodes, with or without the application of pressure.
Break test
 -  A destructive testing method where a fillet weld sample is broken and the broken surfaces examined for discontinuities. See Weld Quality Assurance
 -  CJP (complete joint penetration): A condition in a groove weld in which weld metal extends through the entire thickness of the joint
Collaborative Robot
 -  A robotic system that is designed to work in tandem with a human operator. The BotX Welder is an example of a collaborative welding robot.
Coupling hub
 -  A coupling hub that is the connecting part to be attached either to the driver shaft end or to the driven equipment shaft end of a rotating drive. See Coupling Hub Maintenance Article
Deposited metal
 -  Filler metal that has been added during a welding operation.
Destructive Testing (DT)
 -  A method of testing a constructed or welded piece where the piece is destroyed while being tested to the point of failure. See Weld Quality Assurance
 -  Also called Arc Control. Gives a power source variable additional amperage during low voltage (short arc length) conditions while welding. Helps avoid “sticking” stick electrodes when a short arc length is used.
 -  An undesirable sagging or surface irregularity, usually encountered when brazing or welding near the solidus of the base metal caused by overheating with rapid diffusion or alloying between the filler metal and the base metal.
Dye Penetrant Testing
 -  Using dye to detect surface defects in a weld. See Weld Quality Assurance
GMAW - Gas Metal Arc Welding
 -  An arc welding process which produces coalescence of metals by heating them with an arc between a continuous filler metal (consumable) electrode and the work. Shielding is obtained entirely from an externally supplied gas or gas mixture. Some methods of this process are called MIG or CO2 welding (nonpreferred terms). See > MIG welding equipmentVideo > MIG (GMAW) welding
Hot-wire TIG (Tip TIG)
 -  A TIG (GTAW) welding process were the welding wire receives a mechanically applied vibratory effect and electrical current before entering the weld pool. See TIG Pipe Cladding Systems
Induction heating
 -  Induction heating is the process of heating an electrically conducting object (usually a metal) by electromagnetic induction, through heat generated in the object by eddy currents. See induction heating systems
Leg of a fillet weld
 -  The distance from the root of the joint to the toe of the fillet weld.
Lincoln AC Aluminum Pulse
 -  With the help of the Lincoln Electric Power Wave® Advanced Module, GMAW aluminum welding results can be improved over traditional DC positive aluminum MIG welding. By switching the polarity of the arc, heat input is reduced and deposition rates are enhanced.
Lincoln RapidArc®
 -  Accelerated MIG pulse mode with a short arc length compared to pulse and CV-spray for high travel speed applications. Developed by Lincoln Electric.
Macro Testing
 -  A destructive testing method where the sections of a weld are polished, etched and examined under a microscope for defects.
Metal electrode
 -  A fillet or non-filler metal electrode, used in arc welding or cutting consisting of a metal wire or rod that has been manufactured by any method and that is either bare or covered with a suitable covering or coating.
 -  MIG stands for Metal Inert Gas. Only inert gases or gas mixtures are used for the shielding gas when MIG welding. Typical inert gases used for MIG welding are argon and helium. These gases are usually used for MIG welding of aluminium and other non-ferrous metals. MAG stands for Metal Active Gas. Active gas mixtures have been developed primarily for welding steels. Typical shielding gases are mixtures of argon, carbon dioxide and oxygen e.g. CO2 , Ar + 2 to 5% O2 , Ar + 5 to 25% CO2 and Ar + 10% CO2 + 5% O 2 . The composition of the shielding gas has a substantial effect on the stability of the arc, metal transfer and the amount of spatter. The shielding gas also affects the behaviour of the weld pool, particularly its penetration and the mechanical properties of the welded joint. In the US, both MIG and MAG welding are described by the term GMAW (Gas Metal Arc Welding).
Miller Accu-Pulse®
 -  MIG process that delivers precise control of the arc even over tack welds and in tight corners. Provides optimum and precise molten puddle controL. A Miller Technology Exclusive.
Miller Active Arc Stabilizer™
 -  A Miller Technology Exclusive - Active Arc Stabilizer enhances arc starts and provides a softer arc throughout all ranges, with less puddle turbulence and less spatter.
Miller Adaptive Hot Start™
 -  Automatically increases the output amperage at the start of a stick weld, should the start require it. Helps eliminate sticking of the electrode at arc start. A Miller Technology Exclusive. Available on these machines: 12VX Extreme Duty, EXtreme 360 MAP , Miller Syncrowave 250 DX , Miller Syncrowave 350 LX , Miller XMT 350 MPa
Miller Advanced Active Field Control Technology™
 -  A simple and reliable patented way of accurately controlling an engine drive's generator weld output. A Miller Technology Exclusive.
Non-Destructive Testing
 -  NDT involves the testing of welds without destroying the welds or parts. See Weld Quality Assurance
Overspray occurs during the spray application of paint, stain, or varnish, when the sprayed material goes beyond the intended target and paint is applied to other surfaces which were not intended to receive the paint. See the ArticlePaint Booth Renewal with Dry Ice Blasting
 -  Running multiple power generators to form a large capacity power source with redundancy. Often used for mission critical operations such as oilfield and emergency backup power. More about paralleling generators.
 -  The mechanical working of metals using impact blows.
Positioned weld
 -  a weld made in a joint which has been so placed as to facilitate making the weld. See: welding positioners.
 -  The application of heat to the base metal immediately before welding, brazing, soldering, thermal spraying, or cutting. See > Induction Heating Equipment Used for Preheating
Progressive block sequence
 -  A block sequence during which successive blocks are completed progressively along the joint, either from one end to the other or from the center of the joint toward either end.
Pulsed MIG (GMAW-P)
 -  A modified spray transfer process that produces no spatter, because the wire does not touch the weld puddle. Applications best suited for pulsed MIG are those currently using the short circuit transfer method for welding steel, 14 gauge (1.8 mm) and up. Flexibility and productivity—nearly all metals can be welded in all positions, Larger diameter electrode wires for higher deposition rates, Virtually no spatter, Welds thin to thick metalsArticle: Why Use Pulsed MIG?
Scratch Start TIG
 -  A common method of striking an arc in the TIG welding process which involves dragging the tungsten electrode across the surface of the metal. Not the cleanest method of starting a TIG weld. Stick welders can be converted to use for scratch TIG with the addition of an air cooled TIG torch and argon gas.
Submerged Arc Welding (SAW)
 -  An arc welding process which produces coalescence of metals by heating them with an arc or arcs between a bare metal electrode or electrodes and the work. The arc is shielded by a blanket of granular, fusible material on the work. Pressure is not used and filler metal is obtained from the electrode and sometimes from a supplementary welding rod. View Submerged Arc Welding
In the context of welding, the term synergic refers to the automatic synchronization of welding parameters based on the adjustment of a single parameter.
 -  A thermoelectric device for measuring temperature which consists of two wires of two differing metals which are connected at two points, a voltage being developed between the two junctions in proportion to the temperature difference provides the capacity for measuring difference in temperature. See application using thermocouple.
TIG - Pulsed TIG (TIG-P)
 -  A modified TIG process appropriate for welding thinner materials.
Welding leads
 -  The work lead and electrode lead of an arc welding circuit.
Welding rod
 -  A form of filler metal used for welding or brazing which does not conduct the electrical current.
Work angle
 -  The angle that the electrode makes with the referenced plane or surface of the base metal in a plane perpendicular to the axis of the weld.
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